Recorded history in Egypt began around 4,000 B.C.
when B.C. nomadic hunters settled in the Nile Valley. But it was in
3,100 B.C. that Egypt crowned her first Pharaoh, Menes, who later
unified the country's two regions, Lower Egypt (The Delta) and Upper
Egypt (from Giza to Aswan in the South). Egypt's history can be
summarized as follows:
Egypt: C 5,000 - 3,200
Egypt: C 3,200 - 2,700
B.C. Development of society,law and religion.
Kingdom: C 2,700 - 2,600
B.C.Great achievements especially in the fields of administration,
astronomy and architecture.
Kingdom: C 2,260 - 1,780
B.C. An era of prosperity and expansion of political strength and
economic, horizons. Thebes became the capital. Later, Egypt was
invaded by the Hyksos, coming from Caucasia, who remained for 150
years until finally driven back.
Kingdom: C 1,580 - 1,085
B.C. Four centuries of splendor, prosperity and spiritual and
artistic achievements. Architecture
The Decline: C 1,090 -
332 B.C. The
country fell under the influence of priests. In 525 B.C.
Egypt was conquered by the Persians.
Greco-Roman Period: C
332 B.C. - 640
A.D. In 332 B.C. Alexander the Great took possession of Egypt,
called himself a Pharaoh, and founded the city of Alexandria. After
his death, the Ptolemaic Dynasty was founded, and Alexandria
flourished. Disputes and fratricidal wars ended the Greek domination
marked by Cleopatra's suicide. Afterwards, Egypt became a Roman
Period: 30 B.C. - 640
A.D. In 61 A.D. Chnstianity was introduced to Egypt by St. Mark who
founded the Patriarchate of Alexandria, and by 190 A.D. there was a
large and flourishing Christian community. After the Roman Empire
was officially divided in 395 A.D., Egypt became a part of its
Eastern portion, known as the Byzantine Empire whose religion was
Christianity. A few years later, the Alexandria Patriarch preached a
doctrine of Christianity which was rejected by th Byzantine Church. Consequently,
the Coptic Christians in Egypt were persecuted by the Melkite
Period: In 641 A.D.,
the Byzantines were defeated by Arab Moslem armies led by Amr Ibn
El-As who built his capital near present-day Cairo. Egypt became an
arab country with a Moslem majority and religious freedom was
accorded to people. Later Egypt was invaded by Ottoman sultans who
relied on Mamelouks (slaves) to govern the country. In 1798,
Napoleon conquered Egypt but had to withdraw after his defeat at the
naval battle of Abu-Kir, near Alexandria. An Albanian officer in the
Ottoman service called Mohamed Ali declared himself ruler of the
country, and during his reign (1805- 1849) in many fields, Egypt
made tremendous progress; however, under the rule of his grandson,
Khedive Ismail, the necessity for foreign capital to finance digging
the Suez Canal lead to British rule in Egypt.
The 1952 Revolution: In 1952, the
royal dynasty established by Mohamed Au came to an end when a group
of army officers forced the abdication of King Farouk, and in 1954
Gamal Abdel-Nasser became Egypt's president. Egypt was proclaimed a
republic. After his death in 1970, Nasser was succeeded by Mohamed
Anwar El-Sadat who was assassinated in 1981. Mohamed Hosni Moubarak
was elected to Presidency.
Government: Egypt is
called the Arab Republic of Egypt. The system of government is
democratic presidential. The president is nominated by the People's
Assembly composed of 350 members and approved through popular
referendum. He serves a 6 -year term and may be re-elected for
further terms of office.